The 10 oldest countries in the world (updated 2021) - (2023)

Although human life began to form millions of years ago, the first signs of human civilizations have only recently appeared on the human timeline. Some of the first civilizations developed around 6500 BC. C. when people stopped leading a nomadic life and started to settle and develop in an area. These early settlements soon grew into large cities and the idea of ​​separate countries and nations followed. Some of the first countries were founded shortly after civilization developed, and all the countries on this list were founded thousands of years ago.

10. San Marino

Founded in:301 n. Chr
Founder:San Marino
Capital:city ​​of san marino
Current population:33,344 (2018 estimate)

The 10 oldest countries in the world (updated 2021) - (1)Photoquelle: Wikimedia Commons

While many other countries have a longer history,San Marinoit is often cited as the oldest city in the world, as the country has been an unbroken sovereign state since 301 AD. The country was officially founded on September 3, 301 AD, when San Marino built a church on Mount Titano. This small church became the city of San Marino, the capital of the small country.

San Marino is one of the smallest countries in the world and is part of the Italian peninsula. The country is very prosperous and its economy is mainly based on finance, tourism, services and industry. San Marino has one of the lowest unemployment rates in Europe, no public debt and a budget surplus.

did you know

Not only is San Marino the oldest continuous sovereign state, it also has the oldest constitution in the world, dating back to October 8, 1600. However, not all of its laws are codified, which is why the US Constitution is often considered the oldest in the United States.

9. Iran - Founded around 550 BC C

Founded in:c.550 a.
Founder:zero II
Current population:81,672,300 (2018 estimate)

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alter iran, known in the western world as Persia until 1935, was destroyed around 550 BC. founded. C. Under the Achaemenid Empire. Before the rise of the Persian Empire, different populations lived in the area that later became Iran; These included the Elamites, a pre-Iranian civilization that settled in the far west and southwest of present-day Iran, and the Medes, who controlled most of Iran until the Persians intervened.

Cyrus II (commonly known as Cyrus the Great) founded the Persian Empire around 550 BC. C. After conquering the Media, Lydian and Babylonian empires and gaining control of Iran. The Achaemenid Empire ruled Iran until Alexander the Great in 330 BC. conquered the Persian Empire. Modern Iran was formed in 1979 after the Iranian Revolution ended the monarchy and established an Islamic republic.

did you know

Iran has a rich history and currently has 22 UNESCO World Heritage Sites, the 3rd in Asia and the 11th in AsiaANDmore in the world.

8. Japan

Founded in:660 a.C.
Founder:Emperor Jimmu (Legendary)
Current population:126,440,000 (2018 census)

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Japanhe often quotes 660 BC. C. as the founding date of the country since Japan's first emperor, Emperor Jimmu, ascended the throne and Japan's imperial dynasty began. Emperor Jimmu is considered the mythical legendary emperor of Japan and is believed to be a descendant of the sun goddess Amaterasu; He is mentioned in two early chronicles as the first emperor of Japan.kojiki, jnihon shoki. The first emperors of Japan after Emperor Jimmu are also considered legendary due to insufficient evidence of their actual existence.

Although historians cannot be sure whether these early emperors actually existed, they do know that around 13,000 B.C. came from the Asian continent to Japan. C. and Japan's earliest recorded history took place during the Kofun period (c. 250 AD - 538 AD). Although the story of Emperor Jimmu is most likely a myth, Japan celebrates National Foundation Day on February 11th.ANDin honor of Emperor Jimmu's accession to the throne in 660 BC.

did you know

One of the things Japan is known for is the longevity of its citizens; The country has the highest life expectancy in the world, many people live to be over 100 years old.

7. Greece - Founded around 800 BC. W

Founded in:an 800 n.
Founder:Not specified
Current population:10,768,477 (2017 estimate)

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The archaic period ofGreeceIt is one of the most significant periods in the country as it laid the groundwork for the Classical Period of Greece, known for laying the foundations of modern Western civilization. This period in Greek history began around 800 BC. C. after Greece began to emerge from the Middle Ages.

During the Archaic Period, the Greeks made advances in art, poetry, and technology, but the most important thing invented during this period was the polis, or city-state. The polis would determine political life in Greece in the following centuries. The Greek alphabet and the first institutions of democracy were also developed during this period. Ancient Greece was succeeded by Roman Greece, Byzantine Greece and Ottoman Greece, and the period of modern Greece began in 1821 after the Greek Revolution.

did you know

Athens, the capital of Greece, has long been ato connectmillennium and

6. Ethiopia - Founded around 980 AD.

Founded in:c.980 a.
Founder:A foreigner
Capital:Addis Ababa
Current population:102,403,196 (2016 estimate)

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Human life has existed in Ethiopia for millions of years.Skeletal fragments of Australopithecus afarensis, an ape-like creature that may have been the ancestor of modern humans, found in the area are believed to be between 3.4 and 2.9 million years old. As life in Ethiopia prospered, complex societies began to develop and one of the first established kingdoms was Dʿmt, established from c. BC inventory. c to c 400 BC Chr.

The people of this kingdom developed irrigation systems, used plows, grew millet, and made iron tools and weapons. After the fall of Dʿmt, the Aksumite Kingdom rose to power around 100 AD. and ended sometime in 940 AD. This kingdom was followed by the Zagwe dynasty and then the Solomon dynasty: Ethiopia continued to be ruled by a monarchy until 1974.

did you know

Ethiopia is one of the few countries in Africa that was never colonized by a European power, but was occupied by the Italians between 1936 and 1941.

5. Georgia

Founded in:c. century 15 a. C
Current population:3,729,600 (2016 estimate)

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Georgiatraces its history back to the legendaryKingdom of Colchisand the Kingdom of Karlti/Iberia. Both kingdoms were during the Eurasian Bronze Age around 1500 BC. important. The kingdom of Colchis is frequently mentioned in Greek mythology, particularly in the stories of the Golden Fleece and Jason and the Argonauts. While these stories may just be legends, powerful tribes founded small states in Georgia as early as the 12th century.ANDcentury AD

After a brief Roman conquest around 66 BC. C., Rome and the Iranian states fought over Georgia for over 700 years. Georgia also fell to the first Muslim conquests in the 7th centuryANDCentury AD Subsequently, the country was ruled by the Persians and Russia. After a short period of independence from the Russian Empire, Georgia became part of the Soviet Union. In 1991, Georgia finally gained its true independence.

did you know

Georgia became the second country to embrace Christianity in the early 4th centuryANDCentury CE and the Georgian Orthodox Church is one of the oldest Christian churches in the world.

4. China - Founded around 2070 BC.

Founded in:c.2070 a.
Founder:you are the great
Current population:1,403,500,365 (2016 estimate)

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ANDfirst chinese dynastywas the Xia dynasty, which began around 2070 BC. - 1600 BC lasted. There are no first-hand records from the Xia Dynasty, as the written history of China dates back to the Shang Dynasty (c. 1600 B.C.Bamboo Annals, ANDhistory classics, it's atNotes of the great historian.

Until excavations in the 1960s and 1970s revealed sites that provided strong evidence for the existence of the Xia Dynasty, many people believed that this was more myth than fact. China's dynasty period lasted until 1912, when the Qing Dynasty ended and the Republic was established. The People's Republic of China was founded in 1949 and remains China today.

did you know

Although the people of ancient China invented many things that we still use today, the four great inventions - the compass, gunpowder, papermaking and printing - are beloved in Chinese culture for their historical significance and as symbols of science and technology. advanced. .

3. Afghanistan

Founded in:a 3000 n.
Founder:Unknown - possibly Indus Valley Civilization
Current population:31,575,018 (2018 estimate)

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The Indus Valley Civilization is believed to have existed as early as 3000 BC. had a colony in Afghanistan. They founded one offirst cities in the world, Mundigak, near modern Kandahar. Archaeologists have also found evidence of colonies of smaller Indus Valley civilizations in other parts of Afghanistan.

Over time, waves of Central Asian semi-nomads settled in Afghanistan, bringing their culture with them. Afghanistan was conquered by Darius I of Persia and later by Alexander the Great and other empires. At times, the country was even influenced by the British. In 1973, Afghanistan became a unitary Islamic presidential republic.

did you know

Although Afghanistan is now an Islamic nation, Buddhism flourished in the country during World War connectcentury a. HerethirdCentury AD under the Kushan Empire.


Founded in:c.3300 a.
Founder:the Indus Valley Civilization
Current population:1,324,171,354 (2016 estimate)

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Since around 3300 BC BC people have lived in the region of the Indian subcontinent. C. Beginning with the Indus Valley Civilization. Although these primitive people formed one of the world's first urban civilizations, the beginning ofSeas a nation began with the Vedic period, which lasted from about 1500 B.C. Lasted. c.-c. 600 BC This time period is named after the Vedic texts, which were orally written in Vedic Sanskrit and contained details of Vedic culture.

Vedic civilization laid the foundations of Hinduism (Vedic texts are still sacred to modern Hindus), as well as various cultural aspects of the Indian subcontinent that still exist today. The first kingdoms or Janapadas started around 1200 BC. to form. C. and lasted until the end of the Vedic period. The end of the Vedic period led to the rise of Hinduism, Jainism and Buddhism in India and the beginning of the powerful dynasties that would rule India for the next three millennia. Modern India was founded in 1947 after the country gained independence from the British Empire.

did you know

India is the seventh largest country by area and the second most populous country after China with over 1.32 billion people.

1. Egypt

Founded in:c.6000 a.
Founder:King Narmer (aka Menes)
Current population:94,798,827 (2017 census)

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Although the ancient Egyptian civilization has its roots around 6000 BC. C., when various groups of hunter-gatherers settled in the Nile valley,Egypt's first dynastyit is dated to around 3100 BC. dated. At this time, Upper and Lower Egypt were united into a single kingdom by King Menes. Menes is actually the Egyptian word for founder and many historians believe that the founder of Egypt was a ruler named Narmer.This makes Egypt the oldest country in the world.

King Narmer managed to gain control of the entire navigable length of the Nile and established his capital at Memphis, a city near present-day Cairo. This first dynasty was the first in a series of dynasties that would rule Egypt for the next three millennia, ending in 332 BC. It was conquered by Alexander the Great. Modern Egypt was founded in 1953 after the Egyptian Revolution of 1952.

did you know

Although Egypt has a large population, most of its citizens live along the Nile, where the only arable land (about 40,000 km²) is found.


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